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Saturday, 10 December 2016

How The Computer Displays Correct Time When Turned On After Years?


It was once when I was in 7th grade. I turned on my desktop computer after almost a year. I glanced at the screen a few moments after the PC booted and I was surprised to know it displayed correct date and time after a year of no operation. Also, the computer wasn’t connected to the internet as I forgot to turn on the router so that it could sync the time.
To satisfy my curiosity, I researched on the web and came to know that there is a semiconductor chip present on the motherboard which is assigned the job of keeping a note of the time when the computer disconnects from the power source.
THE RTC CHIP REMEMBERS THE DATE AND TIME.
This timekeeper chip is called the Real-time Clock (RTC) or the CMOS ( Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) chip. The CMOS chip (known as CMOS RAM) is a memory which also stores the BIOS information of the computer. And it is a volatile memory, that’s why It is driven by a low voltage battery having a life of around five to ten years. On desktop computers, the battery looks like a silver colored coin

The RTC chips come in a compact form, often not user-replaceable, in newer computers including laptops. In fact, the need for such chips in machines is declining as high-speed connectivity is being adopted at a tremendous rate. The computers can easily sync time using the internet. Single board computers like the Raspberry Pi don’t feature a real-time clock chip.
Single board computers like the Raspberry Pi don’t feature a real-time clock chip. Other compact devices mobile phones have the real-time clock built on the chip itself but maybe without a battery in order to save space. The RTC is then powered by the mobile phone’s main battery. That’s the reason the time on your mobile resets when you remove the battery.

Sunday, 4 December 2016

Software Testing and an Overview of Its Types

Computers, software programs, and information technology tools and services have become an integral part of our lives. From personal communication and transportation to conduct of business and commercial activities, there is virtually no aspect of modern society that does not involve information technology. In such a scenario, a malfunctioning or buggy software application can have a significant impact on our personal and professional activities. This is why software testing has become an integral and important component of the development process.

Software testing refers to the process of ensuring the application does what it was designed to do in an efficient and functional manner. Even program that does not have any bugs requires testing to ensure that it achieves its ultimate objective as specified by the client. The testing process ensures that the software program does not cause unintended consequences like system crashes, along with making sure the ultimate purpose of the design and development process is fulfilled by the program.
Importance of Software Testing
With computer programs and smartphone applications becoming more and more complicated, rigorous and efficient testing is integral to create a satisfactory end-user experience. In the past, a faulty or buggy software application would have merely resulted in waste of the user’s time, effort, and money.
With computer chips and applications being used to create driver less automobiles and connected houses, bugs and other complications may lead to car crashes, domestic accidents, thefts, and many other issues.
From the developer’s point of view, effective testing is the only way to maintain confidence of end users in information technology tools and services. A fancy program that does not work or works in an inefficient manner is unlikely to enjoy credibility amongst software users.
Types of Software Testing
Since testing is intended to ensure the program complies with its specifications, there are different types of tests that can be done at different stages of the development process. Given below are some common types of software testing services offered by software development companies:
a. Black Box and White Box Testing
Blackbox tests ignore the internal design of the system and focus solely on the functionality requirements. The latter option, also known as glass box testing, covers the code, branches, paths, conditions, and other aspects and facets of the program.
b. Incremental Testing
As the name suggests, this is a continuous testing strategy where each new module or functionality that is added to the program is tested separately. This ensures the software is tested in an incremental manner throughout the development process.
c. Integration Testing
This test is done to ensure all integrated modules of the program function according to the design specifications. This testing may include multiple modules of a single program, a combination of applications working together or even client and server applications distributed over a network.
d. Functional Testing
Like blackbox testing, functional software testing techniques focus on ensuring the program provides the output as required by the end-user. The internal modules are considered suitable and effective as long as the final output is a satisfactory.
e. End to End Testing
This testing process involves assessment of the application’s functioning in a real-world environment. These tests are necessary to ensure a program that functions properly in isolation does not create systemic issues when interacting with databases, hardware, and software applications.
f. Regression Testing
This testing method is utilized to assess the impact of a change or modification in a specific module or subsystem on the overall performance of the application. The entire program is checked after every modification that is made to its components.
g. Acceptance Testing
These tests are done by the customers or end-users before accepting delivery of the finished product. This is done with primary emphasis on determining whether the requirements of the ultimate end-user of the program are being fulfilled by the program.
Apart from the types mentioned above, various applications of software testing cover the design, development, and release of the program. Further, advanced tests may be required to assess the performance of the program on the Internet or on mobile devices

Wednesday, 9 November 2016

OSI reference model (Open Systems Interconnection)


Physical (Layer 1)

OSI Model, Layer 1 conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal  through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components.
Layer 1 Physical examples include Ethernet, FDDI, B8ZS, V.35, V.24, RJ45.

Data Link (Layer 2)

At OSI Model, Layer 2, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocolknowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking.
 Layer 2 Data Link examples include PPP, FDDI, ATM, IEEE 802.5/ 802.2, IEEE 802.3/802.2, HDLC, Frame Relay. 

Network (Layer 3)

Layer 3 provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing.
Layer 3 Network examples include AppleTalk DDP, IP, IPX.

Transport (Layer 4)

OSI Model, Layer 4, provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer.
Layer 4 Transport examples include SPX, TCP, UDP.

Session (Layer 5)

This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination.
 Layer 5 Session examples include NFS, NetBios names, RPC, SQL.

Presentation (Layer 6)

This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.
 Layer 6 Presentation examples include encryption, ASCII, EBCDIC, TIFF, GIF, PICT, JPEG, MPEG, MIDI.

Application (Layer 7)

OSI Model, Layer 7, supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer.
Layer 7 Application examples include WWW browsers, NFS, SNMP, Telnet, HTTP, FTP 

Wednesday, 1 June 2016

How to modify your Gmail address without creating a new account?

A great way to filter according to the recipient to use plus – addressing in Gmail, you want your mail to be well organized. But there is a little trick that will avoid you to create 3 or 4 different addresses and redirect them to your main address.

Here is your Gmail address as you created it and as you communicate to your surroundings.

Only around you is made up of friends, family members, colleagues, friends and more distant. Do you know that you can decline the same email address in several locations? For example, you want to sign up for Facebook, Myspace, eBay or Amazon.
When facebook asked to enter your e-mail address, Add +facebook to the end of your name, but before @ sign. For example: ysurfing+facebook@gmail.com
All mails that will be sent to these addresses declined arrive in your main inbox, namely ysurfing@gmail.com
Gmail will only consider what is before the + sign so no panic, the email will arrive you well.
What interest to create these alternative addresses?
Create the term is a bit too strong, because the only thing you have to do is to make these little additions and communicate with people of your choice.
Take the example of an address such as ysurfing+facebook@gmail.com we communicate only to certain people. To optimize this feature, we propose to create named wording facebook.
Click the Create label button. Your new wording appears in the Labels section.

Then go in the Filters section of your Gmail settings. First click on gear button on upper right corner of screen and then click setting.
Once in these settings, click the Filters tab and then click Create Filter.
Then specify in the To: field your alternate address ysurfing+facebbok@gmail.com
Then click the Create filter with this search.
Now think to check the box Apply the label and select facebook.
Here, you make the necessary manipulations that all mail addressed to ysurfing+facebook@gmail.com be found in the wording (folder) matching.
Mail redirection occurs without any concern with the filter and the newly created label. You can test all this by sending you an email. You see for yourself that it works perfectly.
The advantages of this technique are numerous:
* You see all your mail in one place
* You do not have to visit multiple Google accounts (or other)
* Do not give out your home address for friends and family (even if one who knows this trick will tell you otherwise)
* You can create as many addresses as you wish without having to create multiple accounts and fill those annoying forms
* You can quickly and easily create you a disposable address and not to use it whenever you want.



Monday, 30 May 2016

How to remove the Windows shortcut arrow from desktop icons

                      How to remove the Windows shortcut arrow from desktop icons
Shortcuts point to files–usually but not always programs–that are stored elsewhere on your drive. If you drag and drop a program from the Start menu to the desktop, you create a shortcut to the original program. To make it clear that it’s a shortcut and not the original file, Windows displays an arrow in the lower-left corner of the icon.
If you don’t like the arrows, you can turn them off by editing the Windows Registry. But William asked for a safe solution, so I’m offering an easier, less dangerous way to make the change.
And that way involves using the Windows Club’s free and portable program, Ultimate Windows Tweaker. Since it’s portable, you don’t have to install it onto your PC.
If you’re using Windows 8, you need the latest version, Ultimate Windows Tweaker 3 for Windows 8. The first time you launch it, it will ask if you want to create a restore point. You do.
Once it’s up, click Customization in the left pane, then click the File Explorer tab. Click theRemove Shortcut Arrows From Shortcut Icons button. The change happens immediately.

If you’re using Windows 7 or an earlier version, the Club recommends the older  Ultimate Windows Tweaker version 2. Unzip and load the program. Then click Additional Tweaksin the left pane. Check Remove arrows from Shortcut Icons. The changes won’t take place until you click Apply, then Close, and then reboot (or at least log off and on).
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Friday, 27 May 2016

How To Create Undeletable Folder In Windows

Create a folder and use some of the tricks on that folder, at least you will have a folder which is neither deletable nor renamable. Yes, this is true that you can create a folder in your windows computer which cannot be deleted or rename.
If you are one of those seeking fun with friends then this trick is the correct choice to have fun with your friends, however this trick is not only for fun but also you are protected from any data loss, there are many such conditions and situation occur at the time of using your own computer i.e, deleted all the folder by mistake but you cannot delete your protected folder even intentionally.
To know the trick to protect your computer folder then just follow the below steps that how can you create a folder that cannot be deleted or renamed. Step starts from CMD as Command Prompt from your computer to know more have a look on below steps.
Step1. Open CMD as Command Prompt. (Go to Start and type CMD)

Note: After this step make sure that you will not select a root directory, means, you can create folder only on nonrooted Drives such as D, E, F, G not the C drive because you have installed your windows on that Drive.
Step2. Open CMD and type E: and hit enter.

Step3. Now type md con\ (MD represent Make Directory) Hit enter.
For example, copy file con outputs file to the screen console. Devices themselves may be copied to a destination file, For example, copy con file takes the text typed into the console and puts it into FILE, stopping when EOF (Ctrl+Z) is typed.

Now Type md con\
Note: You just created a new folder on E Drive, just check it out whether it worked or not, Confirm? OK if yes that means you created a folder, now delete that folder to make sure it is working as undeletable as Title of the tutorial mentioned, now put some folders and music files under con and again try to delete con folder if you see no changes that mean it worked on your computer.


Now how to delete the undeletable folder? Follow below steps again!

Step. open your CMD again, type E: hit enter and again type rd con\ (Remove Directory) hit enter.
To Delete The Same Folder Type rd con\
Your file is deleted. everything is fine just put the value or code correctly and you got what you want. Just make sure whether you are a programmer of not typing a perfect code is the only genuine work, if you mislead or mistype your code then it will not perform.

Wednesday, 11 May 2016

HOW TO TRACK ANY MOBLIE PHONE

HOW TO TRACK ANY MOBLIE PHONE



Are you looking to know how to track a cell phone with pin point accuracy? Do you need to exactly know where your child or employees are moving around during your absence? If so you have come to the right place. In this article I will let you know some of the possible methods to GPS track a cell phone in simple steps.

1. How to Track a Cell Phone that Belongs to Someone Else?

If you need to track someone else’s phone such as your children or employees, you can simply use a cell phone tracking app such as mSpy. This is a very small app that can be installed in just a few simple steps and takes only 2-3 minutes to complete. Once installed the app stays hidden on the phone but keeps track of every activity on the phone including its GPS location, Call Logs, Text Messages and more.
Mspy Features:
  • GPS Location Tracking: GPS positions are uploaded at a time interval you select with a link to the map.
  • Track Text Messages & Emails: Every text message sent and received including SMS and emails are logged even if the phone logs are deleted.
  • Call Logs: Each incoming and outgoing number on the phone is logged along with duration, date and time stamp.
  • Phone Contacts: Get access to complete contact list on the target phone.
  • Browser History: All websites visited on the phone are logged.
  • Social Networking & Messenger Activity: All social media activity such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, WhatsApp, Skype, iMessages, Instagram and many more are recorded.

How it Works?

You will have to download and install the app onto the target phone of whose location and activities you want to track. Installation takes only a few minutes during which you should have the target phone in your hand.
Once the installation is complete, the tracking process will begin immediately and the recorded logs are silently uploaded to your mSpy account. You can login to your secure online account from your computer or phone at any time to view the logs containing GPS location, Call activities Text Messages and more. You can download mSpy from the link below:

2. Tracking a Lost phone

Now, let us look at some of the possible options to track a phone in case if it is lost or stolen.

For Android Phones:

If you need to track a lost android phone, you can follow the steps mentioned below:
  1. Download Android Device Manager from Google play store and install it on another android device. This app lets you track your stolen android phone and also lets to remotely lock or erase all the data on it.
  2. Android Device Manager
  3. From “Android Device Manager” log into your Google account using the same ID associated with your lost phone. After successful login this app will attempt to locate your device and show its last known location on the map.
  4. In addition, you will also be able to perform several actions on your lost phone such as give a RingLock the device or Erase all the data stored on it.

For Apple iPhones:

If you need to track a lost iPhone, you can follow the steps mentioned below:
  1. Login to the iCould Website using an Apple ID associated with your lost phone. Since location tracking is turned on by default on all iPhone devices, iCould lets you track it from your web browser or your iPad and shows its location on the map.
  2. iColud Website
  3. If your phone is found nearby to your location you have an option to Play Sound on it so that your iPhone will emit a sound, helping you track it down.
  4. If this does not help, you can choose the option Lost Mode which will remotely lock your phone down and display a phone number that can be reached at.
  5. If none of the above options work, you can finally decide to go with the option Erase iPhone which will completely wipe out all the data stored on it. This way you can prevent your private information from falling into the wrong hands.

For Windows Phones:

In order to track down a lost Windows phone, you can try the below mentioned steps:
  1. Go to Windows Phone Website and locate the option Find My Phone on the top-right corner of the page.
  2. Track Windows Phone
  3. This will ask you to sign-in using your Windows account associated with your lost phone. If your phone gets traced you will see a map showing its exact location. You will also find options to LockRing and Erase its data in case if your phone is found to be completely lost.
 

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